About 70% of the buffalo raised in the Caucasus are bred in Azerbaijan, which is why the breed is also known as the Azerbaijan buffalo. They are also present in neighboring parts of Iran. Buffalos are not too demanding and their presence helps to create fertile soil, which makes it easy to cultivate the fields where they are kept. They are especially prevalent in the Aran lowlands of central Azerbaijan, an area rich in bogs, lakes, and reedy vegetation. Like all water buffalo, Caucasian buffalo have big horns, strong bodies, and a black coat. Because of their dark color, bright sun can cause them to overheat, so on hot days they love to swim in wetlands, stagnant waters, ponds, or riverbeds. Unlike cattle, buffalo are not tolerant of cold weather: cattle can withstand temperatures of -20°C, while buffalo should not be exposed to anything under -1°C because they have less body fat to protect them. Caucasian buffalo are mainly raised for dairy production. Their milk is very rich, with a fat content of up to 8%.
Buffalos are widespread in Azerbaijan, and most families that keep buffalo have just a few animals, which they raise extensively. Market channels for buffalo milk are not well-developed in Azerbaijan, so most farmers process their milk into butter, cheese, kefir, and other products, which they sell directly.